Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have long been recognized to influence prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), however, 50% of AML patients have a normal karyotype. The new millennium ushered in discoveries of gene mutations at the molecular level that predict outcome in patients with normal karyotype. Some recurrent mutations are already used in routine practice for AML risk stratification. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, there has been a storm of new data, uncovering a complex genetic landscape in AML. In this review, we describe the significant progress in characterizing recurrent genetic abnormalities in AML in the last 5 years, focusing on prognostic significance and therapeutic implications.
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