Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most widely diagnosed cancer worldwide and manifests as a malignant neoplasm in the mucosa of the colon or the rectum [1,2]. Based on the progression of cancer cells, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified CRC into five stages (Figure 1). Stage 0 is considered 100% cured after a surgical resection. The standard treatment for stages I–IIC is also surgical resection, with 5-year survival in the range of 37–74%. Patients diagnosed in advanced stages (stages IIIA–IV) receive adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection, but their survival rate decreases to 6% due to the high risk of metastasis and the recurrence (Table 1) [3,4].
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