Immunotherapy for penile cancer

Penile carcinoma is a rare disease, with incidence rates varying in the range of 1–10 cases per 100,000 men depending on ethnicity, geographic area, cultural background and social habits [1,2]. Tumorigenesis of penile carcinoma is governed by a complex interplay of multiple causative factors. These include initiating agents, such as tobacco toxins, UV radiation and, possibly, household contaminants from solid fuel combustion, which have been implicated in carcinoma of the cervix [3], as well as promoting agents, such as cytokines related to chronic inflammation and high-risk HPV, mainly HPV-16 and HPV-18 [2], which are well known for their major etiopathogenetic role in cervix carcinomas [4].


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