Familial and twin studies have demonstrated a significant inherited component to prostate cancer predisposition. Genome wide association studies have shown that there are 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms which have been associated with the development of prostate cancer. This review aims to discuss the scientific methods used to identify these susceptibility loci. It will also examine the current clinical utility of these loci, which include the development of risk models as well as predicting treatment efficacy and toxicity. In order to refine the clinical utility of the susceptibility loci, international consortia have been developed to combine statistical power as well as skills and knowledge to further develop models that could be used to predict risk and treatment outcomes.
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