Current chemotherapeutic strategies for tumors of the CNS are largely ineffective. This is due, in part, to the lack of robust drug delivery systems. The blood–brain barrier hinders the passage of systemically delivered therapeutics, and the brain extracellular matrix limits the distribution and longevity of locally delivered agents. Drug-loaded nanocarriers represent a promising strategy to overcome these barriers. Due to their small size and versatile design, nanocarriers can be finely tuned to address specific drug delivery challenges. Here, we review the major advances in development of nanocarrier-based therapeutics for tumors of the CNS, with an emphasis on polymeric nanoparticles.