Advances in diagnosis and management of familial pituitary adenomas

Familial pituitary adenomas account for approximately 5–8% of all pituitary adenomas. Besides the adenomas occurring as part of syndromic entities that group several endocrine or nonendocrine disorders (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 4, Carney complex and McCune–Albright syndrome), 2–3% of familial pituitary adenomas fit into the familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. About 20% of FIPA cases are due to mutations in the AIP gene and have distinct clinical characteristics.  Recent findings have isolated a new non-AIP FIPA syndrome called X-linked acrogigantism, resulting from a microduplication that always includes the GPR101 gene. These new advances in the field of pituitary disease are opening up a new challenging domain to both clinicians and researchers. This review will focus on these recent findings and their contribution to the diagnosis and the management of familial pituitary adenomas.

Click here to view the full article in International Journal of Endocrine Oncology.