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Smoking causes adverse outcomes in cancer patients: addressing the evidence base through efficient design

The recent release of the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report (SGR) “The Health Consequences of Smoking – 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General” [1] has profound implications for clinical research and standard clinical cancer care. Presented are data from hundreds of studies in cancer patients evaluating the effects of smoking on cancer treatment outcomes using a well-established model of causality that have been used in prior SGRs over the past 50 years.

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