Cutaneous malignant melanoma remains a significant health burden worldwide despite advances in the management of locoregionally advanced and metastatic disease. Historically, the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) has been questioned due to the perceived radioresistance of melanoma cancer cells in vitro. Nowadays, RT has limited indications for primary disease, but is used for high-risk nodal disease and in the palliative setting. This review article outlines the current role of RT for melanoma and its expanding role in oligometastatic disease scenarios as an alternative approach to surgery and highlights potential future applications to harness RT interaction with immunomodulatory targeted therapies.
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