In the last few decades, we have seen significant advances in brain imaging, which have resulted in more detailed anatomic and functional localization of gliomas in relation to the eloquent cortex, as well as improvements in microsurgical techniques and enhanced delivery of adjuvant stereotactic radiation. While these advancements have led to a relatively modest improvement in clinical outcomes for patients with malignant gliomas, much more work remains to be done. As with other types of cancer, we are now rapidly moving past the era of histopathology dictating treatment for brain tumors and into the realm of molecular diagnostics and associated targeted therapies, specifically based on the genomic architecture of individual gliomas. In this review, we discuss the current era of molecular glioma characterization and how these profiles will allow for individualized, patient-specific targeted treatments.
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