MicroRNAs are a class of short noncoding RNAs, that play a relevant role in multiple biological processes, such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered as a paradigm of molecular biology in solid tumors worldwide, and after the discovery of specific alterations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes, they have emerged from anonymity to become a model for targeted therapy. Epigenetics have an emerging and relevant role in different steps of GIST biology such as tumorigenesis, disease progression, prognosis and drug resistance. The aim of the present review was to summarize the current evidence about the role of microRNAs in GIST, including their potential application as well as their limits.
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