Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach with metastasis to the liver: a case report with review of the literature

Sarcomas are cancers of connective tissues that are much less common than epithelial cancers. Leiomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma derived from smooth muscle cells, which can grow almost anywhere in the body, but it is extremely rare in some sites. Because it is so rare, it is important to discuss leiomyosarcoma cases within medical and scientific community. These discussions improve diagnosis and treatment and foster scientific research of these rare cancers. In this report we discuss diagnosis and treatment of a patient with leiomyosarcoma of the stomach, whose disease progressed 2 years after he was disease-free following initial treatment.

Sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal neoplasms that represent less than 1% of all solid malignant tumors in adults [1]. Considering numerous anatomical sites, more than 70 histological types and increasing number of molecular subtypes, sarcomas are a remarkably heterogeneous group of diseases [2] that pose disproportionately high diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in clinical practice. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are composed of cells that display smooth muscle features and account for about 11% of all soft tissue sarcomas (STS) [3]. They are usually diagnosed in middle-aged or older individuals and arise in a number of anatomical sites that include uterus, retroperitoneum, skin, peripheral soft tissue (noncutaneous, nonretroperitoneal) and bone, but also some extremely rare primary locations, such as the thyroid gland, gallbladder, liver, bronchus and pancreas [4].

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