Advances in immune therapy have changed the landscape of advanced melanoma treatment. Intralesional therapy is an important type of immune therapy due to its efficacy and safety, especially in the setting of locoregional metastases. These therapies induce frequent responses in injected lesions as well as distant nontreated lesions through a ‘bystander’ effect of priming an antitumor immune response. The culmination of nearly a century of innovation has led to the approval of the first US FDA approved intralesional therapy for melanoma in talimogene laherparepvec. Numerous efforts to combine intralesional therapies with systemic immune checkpoint inhibitors are ongoing, whereby a synergistic effect may continue to improve outcomes for patients.
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