Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that can be used in cancer vaccines. Thus, various strategies have been developed to deliver tumor-associated antigens via DCs. One strategy includes administering DC–tumor fusion cells (DC–tumor FCs) to induce antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. However, clinical trials using this strategy have fallen short of expectations. Several factors might limit the efficacy of these anticancer vaccines. To induce efficient antitumor immune responses and enhance potential clinical benefits, DC–tumor FC-based cancer vaccines require manipulations that improve immunogenicity for both DCs and whole tumor cells. This review addresses recent progress in improving clinical outcomes using DC–tumor FC-based cancer vaccines.
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