Therapeutic peptides offer important cancer treatment approaches. Designed to inhibit oncogenes and other oncoproteins, early therapeutic peptides applications were hampered by pharmacokinetic properties now addressed through tumor targeting strategies. Active targeting with environmentally responsive biopolymers or macromolecules enhances therapeutics accumulation at tumor sites; passive targeting with macromolecules, or liposomes, exploits angiogenesis and poor lymphatic drainage to preferentially accumulate therapeutics within tumors. Genetically engineered, thermally-responsive, elastin-like polypeptides use both strategies and cell-penetrating peptides to further intratumoral cell uptake. This review describes the development and application of cell-penetrating peptide–elastin-like polypeptide therapeutics for the thermally targeted delivery of therapeutic peptides.