Initially emerging as a widely used clinical antiparasitic drug, albendazole (ABZ) has been increasingly recognized as an effective anticancer agent due to its outstanding advantage, in other words, low toxicity to normal cells but high effectiveness against parasites and some tumors. The major challenge is its poor water solubility and subsequently low bioavailability. This article thus first reviews the brief achievements in using ABZ to treat parasites and cancers, and summarizes the basic mechanisms of action of ABZ. Then this article critically reviews recent nanotechnological strategies, in other words, formulating/conjugating it with carriers into nanoformulations, in practices of improving aqueous solubility and efficacy in treatment of tumors and parasites. Our expert opinions in this field are provided for more effective delivery of ABZ to treat tumors and parasites in vivo.
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