Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly worldwide . In USA, there were an estimated 79,100 new cases of melanoma and 9710 melanoma-related deaths in 2014, representing a 2.8 and 2.4% increase in annual incidence compared with 2013 . The underlying cause of this increase is likely related to increasing environmental exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation either via direct exposure from sunlight or through artificial exposure from the use of indoor tanning devices such as sunbeds, sunlamps and tanning booths . In 2013, the US Surgeon General identified skin cancer as a major public health problem and recommended increasing prevention efforts aimed at identifying at-risk populations and reducing preventable risk behaviors such as outdoor and indoor tanning .
Sexual minority (gay and bisexual) men have recently been shown to have elevated rates of melanoma  and indoor tanning [4–6] compared with heterosexual (straight) men, indicating they may be a high-risk population for skin cancer due to differential risk behaviors. In this editorial, we will review emerging evidence for the relationship between sexual orientation, indoor tanning and melanoma and discuss implications for clinical practice, research and public health.