Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is the third most frequent thyroid cancer arising from thyroid parafollicular cells. Surgery is the first-line strategy in treatment of MTC but disease relapse and patient’s death have been observed in approximately two out of three of MTC cases. Identification of molecular mechanisms and different signaling pathways has offered new insights for disease treatment. The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting these pathways has provided a promising landscape for prevention of progression in patients with advanced metastatic MTC. In this review article different altered molecular pathways implicated in the development of MTC and the therapeutic strategies based on targeting the identified signaling pathways have been summarized.
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