Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is one of the fatal gastrointestinal cancers with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgery offers the only potential for cure in iCCA patients, the prognosis is not optimal with low overall survival rate and high disease recurrence. Hence, adjuvant therapy is generally recommended in the management of high-risk patients. Identifying factors associated with disease recurrence and survival of the iCCA patients after resection will improve understanding of disease prognosis and help in selecting patients who will benefit from surgical resection or stratifying them for clinical trials. Despite development of new methods for early detection of tumor recurrence, effective prognostic models and nomograms, and recent advances in management, significant challenges remain in improving the prognosis of iCCA patients.
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