Essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis belong to the Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN) group of diseases. MPNs are clonal bone marrow stem cell disorders characterized by a proliferation of one or more of the myeloid, erythroid or megakaryocytic cell lines. The treatment of MPN patients should be carried out according to their risk stratification. In 2005 a mutation in the JAK2 gene was discovered that generated more insight into the pathogenetic working mechanism of MPNs. However, the treatment of MPN patients is still mainly only palliative, although progress is being made in reducing the symptoms for MPN patients. This review will give a general overview of the treatment of MPN patients.