Infections in children treated for hematological malignancies pose a direct threat to life and are one of the most common causes of treatment failure in this group of patients. Unequivocal diagnosis at the early stages of infection together with an appropriate and timely treatment may be often difficult due to poor manifestation and nonspecific clinical symptoms of the infection progress. Inflammatory markers make a useful diagnostic tool for this purpose. They significantly help to diagnose, monitor, stratify and predict the outcome in severe infections. This article describes selected biomarkers, both those commonly used in clinical practice, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin as well as less common like IL-6, IL-8 and moreover one promising novel marker – pentraxin 3. The authors emphasize their diagnostic value, clinical usefulness and significance in the treatment efficacy monitoring.