Aim: To conduct a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate the rates of detection of four common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) types using first-void urine paired with vaginal self-obtained samples in a nonvaccinated population of pregnant women. We also aimed to compare these results with a matched nonpregnant group in order to test the applicability of self-sampled hr-HPV cervical cancer screening during antenatal visits. Materials & methods: Samples from 550 pregnant women were subjected to hr-HPV-16, -18, -31 and -45 type detection by inhouse PCR and compared with 250 paired urine, vaginal and cervical samples from an age-matched cohort of nonpregnant women. Results: Comparing overall hr-HPV prevalence in urine and vaginal samples between pregnant (15 out of 550; 2.7%) and nonpregnant women (eight out of 250; 3.2%) for each HPV type revealed no significant differences. All paired urine/vaginal samples were both positive for the same type of hr-HPV and there was no positive urine sample with the other samples being negative. Conclusion: hr-HPV detection in pregnant women using self-obtained urine and vaginal samples seems to be a feasible cervical cancer screening method.