In 2013, trastuzumab–emtasine conjugate (T-DM1) was approved by the US FDA for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. Now, a long-term expectation by patients and physicians becomes a reality for HER2-negative breast cancer. Palbociclib has recently received regulatory approval presenting a new therapeutic horizon for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.
The evidence of genetic variation and tumor heterogeneity [1,2] has revolutionized the targeted treatment of cancer. Genetic tests have been developed for selecting targeted drugs in many cancer types, shaping personalized cancer medicine . Targeting specific mutated or amplified genes that deregulate corresponding signaling pathways without affecting normal cells can provide antitumor activity with low adverse effect profiles.
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