Original Publication Date: 1 October, 2016
Publication / Source: Immunotherapy
Authors: Pawel Kalinski & Jeffrey R Gingrich
Urothelial cancer (bladder cancer; BCa) accounts for over 70,000 new cases and 15,000 deaths annually in USA. Although it can be successfully treated in its early stages, it has extremely high recurrence rates and becomes increasingly resistant to treatment at later stages. Intravesical BCG treatment reduces the recurrence rates of BCa from 60–70% to 30–40% and it is considered a prototypical target of cancer immunotherapy [1–3]. However, low overall durability of BCG responses beyond 2–3 years and the significant risk of progression to muscle invasive disease in spite of initial responses resulted in attempts to improve time to recurrence through BCG maintenance strategies .