Original Publication Date: 1 July, 2014
Publication / Source: Breast Cancer Management
Authors: Peter JK Kuppen, Esther M de Kruijf
The higher incidence of breast cancer in developed countries has been tempered by reductions in mortality, largely attributable to screening programs, improved surgery, and advances in preoperative and adjuvant systemic therapy. Decisions regarding use of systemic therapy in early breast cancer patients are mainly based on prognostic and predictive factors like lymph node status and tumor status regarding size, grade, and hormone receptor and HER2 expression . However, the currently used prognostic factors do not provide optimal risk-stratification. The goals of personalized medicine and targeted therapy demand further information regarding residual disease risk and potential benefit of additional treatments in specific circumstances.